sábado, 13 de febrero de 2010

semiconductor devices

Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. Semiconductor devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a high vacuum.
Semiconductor devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of a number—from a few to millions—of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate.
Wide bandgap semiconductors are semiconductor materials with electronic band gaps larger than one or two electronvolts (eV). The exact threshold of "wideness" often depends on the application, such as optoelectronic and power devices. Wide bandgap materials are often utilized in applications in which high-temperature operation is important.

High Power Applications
The high breakdown voltage of wide bandgap semiconductors is a useful property in high power applications that require large electric fields.
Devices for high power and high temperature applications have been developed. Both gallium nitride and silicon carbide are robust materials well suited for such applications. Cubic boron nitride is used as well. Most of these are for specialist applications in space programmes and military systems. They have not begun to displace silicon from its leading place in the general power semiconductor market.


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